Photo of Utkarsh Bhatnagar

Principal Associate in the corporate and financial regulatory practice at the Mumbai office of Cyril Amarchand Mangaldas. Utkarsh has represented various Indian and multinational fintech, information/ emerging technology companies, and also pharmaceutical, and healthcare companies on transactional, enforcement and regulatory matters. His transactional practice focus is on public & private M&A, commercial agreements and regulatory matters. He can be reached at utkarsh.bhatnagar@cyrilshroff.com

FIG Paper (No 35- Payments Series 3)– The new Draft Directions for Regulations of Payment Aggregator

Introduction:

In our previous two FIG Papers of PA/PG Framework (here) and (here), we shared our key learnings in connection with operations of payment aggregator and payment gateway guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India (“RBI”) on March 17, 2020 (as amended from time to time) (“PA/PG Guidelines”).Continue Reading FIG Paper (No 35- Payments Series 3)– The new Draft Directions for Regulations of Payment Aggregator

FIG Paper (No. 33 – Series 2): Compulsory Registration of Off-shore Virtual Digital Asset Service Providers with FIU-IND?

Recently, the Financial Intelligence Unit – India (“FIU-Ind”) has issued show-cause notices to several offshore Virtual Digital Asset Service Providers (“VDASP”) for non-compliance with  provisions of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (“PMLA”) and for non-registration with the FIU-Ind, post amendment to PMLA on march 07, 2023, while catering to the Indian customers and operating in the Indian market.Continue Reading FIG Paper (No. 33 – Series 2): Compulsory Registration of Off-shore Virtual Digital Asset Service Providers with FIU-IND?

FIG Paper (No. 27 – Series. 1): Implications of Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023, on Payment Service Providers

Introduction:

The Reserve Bank of India (“RBI”) has allowed certain non-banks to operate in the financial ecosystem for payment processing under the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007 (“PSS Act”), in addition to banks. These non-banks are typically operate Cross Border Money Transfer (“MTSS”); Prepaid Payment Instruments (“PPI”); Bharat Bill Payment Operating Units (“BBPOU”); White Label ATM Operators (“WLAO”), etc.Continue Reading FIG Paper (No. 27 – Data Law Series 1): Implications of Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023, on Payment Service Providers

FIG Paper (No. 25 – Series 2): Shedding Light on Dark Patterns in FinTech: Impact of DPDP Act

Introduction:

The new draft guidelines titled ‘Guidelines for Prevention and Regulation of Dark Patterns, 2023’[1] (“Draft Dark Pattern Guidelines”), released by the Department of Consumer Affairs in September 2023, define dark patterns as “any practices or deceptive design patterns using UI/UX (user interface/user experience) interactions on any platform; designed to mislead or trick users to do something they originally did not intend or want to do; by subverting or impairing the consumer autonomy, decision making or choice; amounting to misleading advertisement or unfair trade practice or violation of consumer rights”.Continue Reading FIG Paper (No. 25 – Series 2): Shedding Light on Dark Patterns in FinTech: Impact of DPDP Act

FIG Paper (No. 24 – Series 1): 
New Data Law – Financial Services Implications

(Indian) Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 (“DPDP Act”) received Presidential assent on August 11, 2023, and is awaiting notification by the Indian Government, which is expected soon. This FIG Paper examines: (i) the existing data protection/ privacy framework for the Indian financial services space; (ii) overlays DPDP Act considerations; and (iii) preferred approach to “gap” analysis, basis global learnings.Continue Reading FIG Paper (No. 24 – Series 1): New Data Law – Financial Services Implications

FIG Paper

Pursuant to the Report of the Reserve Bank of India (“RBI”) Working Group on Digital Lending, issued on November 18, 2021, and the RBI Press Release on ‘Recommendations of the Working Group on Digital Lending – Implementation’, dated August 10, 2022 (“August Press Release”), the RBI released the Guidelines on Digital Lending on September 2, 2022 (“Guidelines”). Our Alert examines the key changes introduced and industry implications.Continue Reading FIG Paper (No. 17 – Series 2) – New Digital Lending Guidelines – Industry Implications

Payment System Operators New M&A Implications

Background:

On July 4, 2022, the Reserve Bank of India (“RBI”) clarified to all banks and non-bank payment system operators (“PSOs”) that its prior approval would be required for any (a) takeover/ acquisition of control, which may or may not result in change of management; and (b) sale/ transfer of payment activity to an entity not authorised for undertaking similar activity (“Circular”).Continue Reading FIG Paper (No. 15 – Series 1) – Payment System Operators (PSOs) – New M&A Implications

FIG PAPER (NO. 14) – RBI’s Vision for Payment Systems till 2025

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has published the latest of the payments vision documents titled ‘Payments Vision 2025’ with a view to build on the recent success in the digital payments space in India and the successful implementation of Payments Vision 2021. We will discuss the key developments in payments which the RBI envisages till 2025.

The RBI in its Payments Vision 2025 has set out a core theme on its vision on payments. The theme is E-payments for everyone, everywhere, everytime (4 Es). The vision set forth by the RBI in Payments Solution 2025 is to provide every user with six attributes with respect to E-payments. These are Safe, Secure, Fast, Convenient, Accessible and Affordable E-payment options. The RBI has published Payments Vision 2025 across five anchor goalposts of Integrity, Inclusion, Innovation, Institutionalisation and Internationalisation, with specific directions for each of the goalposts.
Continue Reading FIG PAPER (NO. 14) – RBI’s Vision for Payment Systems till 2025

RBI guidance on loading of PPIs through credit lines

On June 20, 2022, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) clarified to authorised non-bank prepaid payment instrument (PPI) issuers that PPIs may not be loaded from credit lines, and any such practice should be stopped immediately.Continue Reading FIG Paper (No. 13) – RBI guidance on loading of PPIs through credit lines

Fintech Department

In recent years, in line with global trends, India’s growth has been fuelled by technology and platform economy, with physical moving towards digital and ‘phygital’.Continue Reading FIG Paper (No. 10: Series -1) RBI’s New FinTech Department: Industry Implications & Future