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True and Fair

Context

Forewarned is forearmed” is the cardinal principle underlying company law jurisprudence around the world and the foundation of all disclosure requirements.

Section 129(1) of the Companies Act, 2013 (“Act”), provides that the financial statements (“FS”) shall give a ‘true and fair view’ of the state of affairs of the company, comply with the accounting standards notified under Section 133 of the Act, and also be in the form provided for different classes of companies in Schedule III of the Act.

Continue Reading How True is ‘True and Fair’ View?
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Stock Exchange Process

On February 1, 2012, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (“SEBI”) had introduced the mechanism for offer for sale through the stock exchange (the “Stock Exchange OFS”) with the intention of facilitating offloading by promoters and promoter group members in listed companies. It was expected to bring in transparency in secondary transactions as well as draw wider participation. The introduction of the Stock Exchange OFS was also a recognition of limitations of then existing methods for achieving minimum public shareholding (the “MPS”), i.e. taking the public issue route, which was both time consuming and cumbersome.

Continue Reading Offer for sale through the stock exchange process – whether recent changes will revitalise the process?
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Energy Conservation

The Energy Conservation Act, 2001, was amended with the Energy Conservation (Amendment) Act, 2022 (“Amendment Act”), recently. The amended Act received the President’s assent on December 19, 2022, and by way of a notification issued by the Ministry of Power, dated December 26, 2022, the amended Act along with all its provisions came into force on January 1, 2023. The amended Act has brought about some significant changes that are detailed hereunder:

Continue Reading The Energy Conservation (Amendment) Act, 2022: Key Highlights
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Gatekeepers of Governance

Context

In an earlier article under the ‘Gatekeepers of Governance’ series, the authors had discussed how the regulatory architecture under the Companies Act, 2013 (“Act”), and the SEBI (Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2015 (“LODR”), places ‘independent directors’ (“IDs”) at the forefront of India’s quest for better corporate governance. However, it is often forgotten that along with IDs, even non-executive non-independent directors (“NENIDs”) on the Board can play a pivotal role in acting as a ‘watchdog’, and safeguarding stakeholder interest.

Continue Reading Gatekeepers of Governance: Non-Executive Non-Independent Directors
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Ministry of Corporate Affairs circular - Legal Enforceability

Context

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs (“MCA”) is entrusted with the responsibility of administering the Companies Act, 2013 (“2013 Act”). To this end, it has issued many a circulars to clarify the provisions of the 2013 Act and the rules made thereunder from time to time. On important matters like CSR, the ministry has issued detailed FAQs in the form of clarificatory circulars. Till date, the MCA has issued more than 210 clarificatory circulars under the 2013 Act.

Continue Reading Are Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) Circulars constitutionally valid?

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Takeover of Publicly Traded Companies Flashback 2022

It was a buzzing year for control deals in India. Year 2022 saw 93 control deals in the listed space, implemented through the tender offer route under the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Substantial Acquisition of Shares and Takeovers) Regulations, 2011 (Takeover Regulations)[1]. This marks the highest number of tender offers in the last five years.

Continue Reading Takeover of Publicly Traded Companies: Flashback 2022
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The last few years have seen an unprecedented rise in digital payment transactions via Payment Aggregators (“PA”), Payment Gateways (“PG”), and Unified Payments Interface (“UPI”), via third-party application providers (TPAPs), with PAs undergoing licensing by the Reserve Bank of India (“RBI”), under the March 17, 2020, RBI PA/PG Guidelines. Retail payments historically would flow via NEFT/ RTGS/ IMPS, etc. However, UPI has now become the preferred payment mode for online payments, constituting a significant volume of small ticket retail payments in India, which is mostly via PAs. The payment architecture, which was earlier ‘card network’ driven via entities licensed under the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007 (as a ‘payment system operator’), is increasingly moving towards PA/PGs, including for digital asset exchanges, online shopping, check-out financing and digital lending (where significant changes have been implemented by the RBI recently, including via the September 2022 Digital Lending Guidelines).

Continue Reading FIG Paper (No. 18 – Series 1)- Technology/ Financial Services – Recent Law Enforcement Trends
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Gaming Rules

Days after “online gaming” was formally brought under the purview of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (“MEITY”) through the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961[1], MEITY has proposed amendments to the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021 (“2021 Rules”), to create a novel co-regulatory framework to govern the operations of online gaming intermediaries (“Draft Gaming Rules”). The Ministry has invited public comments on the Draft Gaming Rules till January 17, 2023.[2]

Continue Reading Draft Rules for Online Gaming: The Beginning of an Enabling Framework?
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Product Liability

1. Product Liability under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019: An Overview

By Bishwajit DubeySurabhi Khattar & Ashutosh Singh

‘Product Liability’ has been defined for the first time under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 (“2019 Act”). As per the 2019 Act, product liability means the responsibility of a product manufacturer or product seller, or product service provider, to compensate for any harm caused to a consumer by a defective product manufactured or sold or by deficiency in services in relation to the product.

Continue Reading Our Top 10 Blogs of 2022
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Background

The Parliament took 16 years to implement the directions issued by the Supreme Court of India in 1997, in the landmark case of Visakha vs. State of Rajasthan[1] (“Visakha Guidelines”) to enact a law for the prevention of sexual harassment of women at the workplace. The enactment of the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 (“Act”) and the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Rules, 2013 (“Rules”) was very late, but better so than never.

Continue Reading POSH Act – Implementational Challenges