Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL Convention) with the aim of preventing pollution of the marine environment by ships. Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships are provided for in Annexure VI to the MARPOL Convention and they seek to control airborne emissions from ships by prescribing limits on emissions.

Today, the shipping sector accounts for 12% of global sulphur dioxide emissions, 13% of global nitrogen oxide emissions and 3% of global carbon emissions.[1] Shipping fuel constitutes 7% of the global transport oil demand – however, global shipping emissions account for 90% of the transport sector’s sulphur emissions. Continue Reading Laundered Air on the High Seas- IMO 2020

Oxytocin Ban in India

Oxytocin is life-saving drug that is used for the induction and assistance of labour in women during childbirth. It is also used to stop postpartum haemorrhage (excessive bleeding). The drug also aids milk secretion during the lactation process. Because of its inherent lifesaving properties in humans and cattle, Oxytocin is identified as an essential medicine in the 20th World Health Organization (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines, March, 2017[i]. It also continues to be included as an essential medicine in the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM), 2015[ii]. Continue Reading The Oxytocin Ban Story

Gujarat - A Re-emerging Pharma Destination

Gujarat has been the flag bearer of India’s pharmaceutical industry since the establishment of the country’s second oldest drug company, the Alembic Chemical Works Company Limited in Vadodara in 1907. Gujarat’s strategic location on the western coast, coupled with dynamic entrepreneurial talent and favourable policies from the State Government has led it to become one of the premiere industrial hubs for investors looking to invest in India.

Gujarat currently has 33 percent of the aggregate share of the pharmaceutical industry in India[1] and the State also accounts for at least 28 percent of the pharmaceutical exports from India[2]. Moreover, with the advent of the Goods and Service Tax (GST) coupled with the upcoming expiry of tax holidays granted by some northern states of India, the pharmaceutical industry is witnessing a jurisdictional shift, with some of the largest pharmaceutical companies looking to relocate or establish their manufacturing plants in Gujarat. Continue Reading Gujarat – A Re-emerging Pharma Destination?

The Karnataka Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Rules, 2019

The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 (the Act) was introduced to regulate the maternity and related benefits that are extended to women in certain establishments for a period before and after childbirth.

In 2017, by way of the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017 (Amendment Act), various progressive changes were brought about to the law, such as an increase in maternity leave from 12 to 26 weeks, provision for maternity leave for adopting mothers and commissioning mothers, and the introduction of a work-from-home concept as part of an employee’s conditions of service.

Section 11A of the Act, which was introduced under the Amendment Act, made it compulsory for every establishment employing 50 or more employees to provide a crèche facility for its employees. The Amendment Act uses the term “employees” and not “women” thus leading to varied interpretations – for example, does “employees” include employees of all genders and does the Act apply to both permanent as well as contract employees? Continue Reading The Karnataka Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Rules, 2019: Good Intentions But Can It Be Implemented?

The Healthcare Service Personnel and Clinical Establishments Bill, 2019

In the backdrop of recent attacks and acts of violence against medical practitioners and a growing demand for protection in this regard, the Central Government is considering steps to ensure protection is granted to healthcare professionals and clinical establishments, by making such acts punishable offences under law. After numerous meetings with doctors and other stakeholders, the Department of Health and Family Welfare (Medical Services Division), of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, vide notification dated September 2, 2019,  proposed a draft legislation titled ‘The Healthcare Service Personnel and Clinical Establishments (Prohibition of Violence and Damage To Property) Bill, 2019’ (the “Bill”). Continue Reading The Healthcare Service Personnel and Clinical Establishments (Prohibition of Violence and Damage to Property) Bill, 2019

The National Medical Commission Act, 2019

 

The National Medical Commission Act, 2019 (NMC Act) has been notified vide the Gazette Notification dated August 8, 2019. The NMC Act aims to repeal the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 (IMC Act) and constitute the National Medical Commission (NMC), which shall supersede the Medical Council of India (MCI).

This blog post is part of a multi-part series. In this first part, we provide an overview of the salient features of the NMC Act and the regime proposed by it. In subsequent parts, we will endeavour to analyse the various contentious issues in the NMC Act in greater detail as the same has been met with significant angst from medical professionals. Continue Reading The National Medical Commission Act, 2019. A look : Part 1

Applicability of the 2015 and 2019 Amendments - arbitration and conciliation act

Readers may recall our earlier blog published here, where we discussed the Supreme Court’s decision of BCCI v. Kochi Cricket[1] dealing with the date of coming into force of the amendments that were made to the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 (“Act”), by the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015 (“2015 Amendments”). We also briefly discussed the position as set out in the then tabled, proposed 2018 amendments to the Act.

Briefly recapped, in BCCI, the Supreme Court ruled that generally the 2015 Amendments applied prospectively. However, it dealt with the issue slightly differently insofar as Section 36 was concerned. Section 36 of the Act prior to the 2015 amendments provided that if the time for making an application challenging an award had expired or if a challenge application had been made and refused, the award could be enforced. This implied an automatic stay against enforcement. The 2015 Amendments took away the automatic stay and instead stated that the mere filing of a challenge application under Section 34 against the award will not render the award unenforceable, unless the Court grants a stay against enforcement on a separate application being made. Continue Reading The Saga Continues in 2019 – Applicability of the 2015 Amendments in light of the 2019 Amendments.

The Singapore Convention on Mediation 2019

The United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation (Singapore Convention) was adopted by the United Nations on June 26, 2018 and opened for signature on August 7, 2019, with 46 countries affixing their signatures to what is intended be a game changer in the alternate dispute resolution space.

The use of mediation has grown, particularly because it is cheaper than international arbitration (which is now being criticised for the very evils it was created to avoid, i.e. costs and complexity), and also because it is more likely to preserve commercial relationships.  These benefits are recognised in the Preamble to the Convention, reflecting the hope that the enforceability of international commercial settlement agreements  would facilitate efficient administration of justice by States, and also contribute to the development of harmonious international economic relations. Continue Reading The Singapore Convention on Mediation – India’s Pro-enforcement Run Continues

To Bet or Not to Bet - Sports Betting Laws in India

As the society changes, the law cannot remain immutable”

– Justice D P Madon

They say cricket is not a game, it is a religion. In 2019, the India – Pakistan ICC World Cup match saw a viewership of 229 million within India itself[1]. The importance of cricket as a unifying force cannot be debated and needn’t be proved; what is rather interesting is the ancillary impact a simple match of cricket can have on an economy, such as India.

Economic exploitation of cricket is widespread globally: it includes broadcasting rights, sponsorship and merchandising, to name a few. However, another prevalent and illegal exploitation in the form of betting takes precedence over all of the above, for the simple reason that due to the nature of the transaction, the said consideration paid, is officially taken out of India’s financial system and put into a parallel industry, which remains untaxed and unregulated. Continue Reading To Bet or Not to Bet

Home Buyers are equivalent toFinancial Creditors Supreme Court Reigns

The Supreme Court in Pioneer Urban Land and Infrastructure Limited vs. Union of India (Pioneer Judgment)[1], has upheld the constitutionality of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Second Amendment) Act, 2018 (Amendment Act)[2]. Through the Amendment Act[3], the ‘real estate allottees’ (home buyers), as defined under Section 2(d) of the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 (RERA), were brought within the ambit of ‘financial creditor’ under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC).

A three judges’ bench headed by Hon’ble Mr. Justice Rohinton Nariman disposed off a batch of over 150 petitions filed by the real estate developers challenging the constitutional validity of the Amendment Act. The Supreme Court also held that the RERA has to be read harmoniously with the IBC and, in the event of a conflict, the IBC will prevail over the RERA.

Continue Reading Home Buyers = Financial Creditors: Supreme Court Reigns