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Product Liability

1. Product Liability under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019: An Overview

By Bishwajit DubeySurabhi Khattar & Ashutosh Singh

‘Product Liability’ has been defined for the first time under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 (“2019 Act”). As per the 2019 Act, product liability means the responsibility of a product manufacturer or product seller, or product service provider, to compensate for any harm caused to a consumer by a defective product manufactured or sold or by deficiency in services in relation to the product.Continue Reading Our Top 10 Blogs of 2022

Relief to Affected Home Buyers For Delay In Possession

Delays in handing over the possession of flats has become a rampant practice in the Indian real estate industry, due to which numerous innocent home buyers are being penalised. With developers indulging in the delay tactics in handing over possession of flats, home buyers are not only left in the lurch, but are also being forced to pay ‘equated monthly instalments’ (“EMIs”) on home loans.  However, over the years various forums have come to the rescue of the flat buyers.Continue Reading Relief to Affected Home Buyers For Delay In Possession

Dissolution of a partnership firm


Dissolution of a partnership firm entails closure of the business of the partnership, settlement of books and accounts of the partnership and distribution of the surplus property (i.e. remaining property of the partnership after settlement of debts and liabilities of the firm) among partners as per their respective shares in the partnership firm.Continue Reading Distribution of Assets of a Partnership Firm upon Dissolution – Is Registration of Deed of Dissolution or an Arbitration Award mandatory when Immovable Property is involved?

No Occupancy Certificate No Maintenance Charges

An Occupancy Certificate (“OC”) is a document that is issued by a local government agency or planning authority, upon completion of construction of a new project. The certificate is proof that the project has been built, by adhering to applicable building codes, relevant regulations, and laws. It is the responsibility of the developer to obtain an occupancy certificate once the project has been completed. The certificate is an indication that the building is suitable for occupancy.Continue Reading No Occupancy Certificate: No Maintenance Charges

Validity of a Power of Attorney – A Registration Act Perspective

In the matter of Amar Nath v. Gian Chand & Ors.[1], an appeal was filed in the Apex Court against a High Court order holding that production of a true copy of Power of Attorney (“POA”) was essential for the execution of a sale deed under Section 18 of the Registration Act, 1908 (“Act”).Continue Reading Validity of a Power of Attorney – A Registration Act Perspective


The Supreme Court of India in Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. v. M/s. Shree Ganesh Petroleum Rajgurunagar,[1] recently ruled that an award enhancing the rent payable under a separate agreement was liable to be set aside under Section 34(2)(a)(iv) of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 (“Arbitration Act”), on the basis that the award was based on a dispute beyond the scope of submission to arbitration. The theme of what would be within the province of a tribunal or otherwise has often been the subject matter of challenges. For example, in Satyanarayana Construction Company v. Union of India & Others[2], the Supreme Court ruled that if the underlying contract fixed a rate of interest, an arbitrator could not rewrite its terms and award a higher rate.Continue Reading Indian Oil Corporation v. Shree Ganesh Petroleum: An arbitral tribunal’s powers to do justice are circumscribed by contract

Telecom Reforms


The Department of Telecommunications (DoT), in second half of 2021, released a series of notifications for reforming the telecom sector and bringing much-needed reforms. These notifications were compiled in a booklet titled “Telecom Reforms 2021” and released by the DoT (“Reforms”). The Reforms span over different areas of telecom regulations including: Know Your Customer (“KYC”) Norms, amending the definition Adjusted Gross Revenue (“AGR”), a percentage of which is the license fee, Foreign Direct Investment (“FDI”), Bank Guarantees, Customer Application Forms (“CAF”), sharing and assignment of spectrum, Standing Advisory Committee on Frequency Allocation (“SACFA”) clearance, Import of Wireless Equipment and liquidity requirements of Telecom Service Providers (“TSP”). In this blog, we provide an overview of the Reforms and present a brief overall analysis of the same.Continue Reading Telecom Reforms & the way forward

The TRAI's Recommendations on Unbundling Licenses


The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) recently recommended the unbundling of layers of telecom services through a system of differential licensing. The recommendations aim to “catalyse Investments and Innovation and promote Ease of Doing Business”. While the said recommendations have been welcomed by a cross-section of stakeholders, concerns were raised regarding the application of license fee as a percentage of the Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) at different levels. Even though the recommendations of the TRAI are not binding on the licensor (Department of Telecommunications (DoT)), they represent a significant shift in TRAI’s approach to the issuance of licenses in the telecom sector and possibly attracting new service providers.Continue Reading The TRAI’s Recommendations on Unbundling Licenses

Title in immovable property cannot be bestowed on basis of mutation entries

Mutation is a process of changing/updating the title/ownership in the local land revenue/municipal records, which is essential for assessment of the new owner’s tax liabilities.

The Apex Court in Sawarni v. Inder Kaur and Ors.[1] set aside the orders passed by the (i) High Court dismissing the second appeal and (ii) Additional District Judge and held that “Mutation of a property in the revenue record does not create or extinguish title nor has it any presumptive value on title. It only enables the person in whose favour mutation is ordered to pay the land revenue in question.” The order recorded that the Additional District Judge has erroneously concluded that mutation in favour of Inder Kaur (respondent) conveys title to the property in her favour, thus giving rise to conflict. The Apex Court further noted that the lower appellate court did not reach any positive findings on the title of the respondent to the property and was swayed away with the mutation in the revenue record reflecting the name of the respondent.
Continue Reading Title in immovable property cannot be bestowed on basis of mutation entries

National Monetisation Pipeline – Fueling Economic Growth


Monetisation of assets has  been  identified as one of the pillars for enhanced and sustainable infrastructure financing. The Finance Minister of India (“FM”) had, in December 2019, announced a National Infrastructure Pipeline (“NIP”) that envisages an investment of INR 111 lakh crore in the infrastructure sector in the period between 2019 and 2025 and brings in various opportunities for private sector to invest in infrastructure projects including the development and operation of the same. The FM in the annual budget 2021-2022 announced the launch of a new national monetisation pipeline[1] to bridge the gaps in infrastructure funding projects under the NIP and to unlock value from the current public investment in infrastructure through private sector efficiencies in operations and management of infrastructure. The NITI Aayog has now created the National Monetisation Pipeline (NMP Volumes I & II) (“NMP”) in respect of the brownfield core infrastructure assets. The NMP is in furtherance of the Government of India’s (“Government”) strategic divestment policy, which aims to limit Government’s presence to only a select identified sectors with the rest to be handed to private players.Continue Reading National Monetisation Pipeline – Fueling Economic Growth