Managerial Remuneration – Should Promoters Be Disenfranchised?

Historical Context

The Government of India’s socialistic approach towards controlling managerial remuneration between 1960s and 1990s has been a painful chapter in the history of India’s company law. While the restriction applied only to those on the board of directors, the limits the then Department of Company Affairs had prescribed in its administrative guidelines under the Companies Act, 1956 in November 1969 was as low as INR 7,500 per month and further reduced to INR 5000 per month years later. Any payment beyond those limits required the Central Government’s approval, which was also a very cumbersome and time-consuming process. This led to the unhealthy practice of compensating Managing Directors and Executive Directors (“MD/EDs”) with cash reimbursements and many other inappropriate methods. Some MDs/ EDs also stepped down from the board to accept positions one level below the board. They were designated as presidents and vice presidents despite performing the role of the Managing Director.Continue Reading Managerial Remuneration – Should Promoters Be Disenfranchised?

GCC Series: Setting-up Global In-house Centres (GICs) in India: Key regulatory considerations

In part VI of our series on key legal considerations for establishing global capability centres (“GCCs”) in India,[1] we discuss global in-house centres or GICs that precede and are a variant of current GCCs.Continue Reading GCC Series: Setting-up Global In-house Centres (GICs) in India: Key regulatory considerations

Ultimate parent’s professional CEO a Significant Beneficial Owner: Do companies have to re-evaluate their corporate approval process and reporting line structures?

Background

The genesis of the concept of ‘significant beneficial ownership’ under Indian law can be traced to the Financial Action Task Force (“FATF”) recommendations on issues pertaining to ‘transparency and beneficial ownership of legal persons and arrangements’. Set up in 1989, the FATF is a global inter-governmental body, now serving as a watchdog for global money laundering and terrorist financing. Continue Reading Ultimate parent’s professional CEO a Significant Beneficial Owner: Do companies have to re-evaluate their corporate approval process and reporting line structures?

Administrative Adjudication under the Companies Act – Need for a relook at appeal provisions

Constitutional Perspective

The Central Government recognised the importance of setting up tribunals outside the judicial system that would help alleviate the overburdened judicial machinery. In 1976, the Constitution of India (“Constitution”) was amended through the 42nd Amendment to add two new provisions to the Constitution, viz., Articles 323A and 323B. This change laid the foundation for tribunal system and for the evolution of the system of administrative adjudication in India.Continue Reading Administrative Adjudication under the Companies Act – Need for a relook at appeal provisions

Holding-Subsidiary Relationship – Legal & Regulatory Architecture

Background

Companies, as the business grows, operate through their subsidiaries for various reasons such as flexibility in operation of different units, expansion in different geographies, etc. While subsidiary is an entity over which the wholly owned subsidiary has control, the Companies Act, 2013 (“CA 2013”) recognises subsidiary companies as a separate legal entity.Continue Reading Holding-Subsidiary Relationship – Legal & Regulatory Architecture

When is a Holding Company liable for the acts and omissions of its Subsidiary? A Jurisprudential Analysis

The Companies Act in India and jurisdictions all over the world have statutorily recognised subsidiaries as a separate legal entity. Section 2(87)[1] of the Companies Act, 2013 (“CA 2013”), defines “subsidiary company” or “subsidiary” as a company in which the holding company controls the composition of the Board of Directors; or exercises or controls more than one-half of the total voting power either on its own or together with one or more of its subsidiary companies.Continue Reading When is a Holding Company liable for the acts and omissions of its Subsidiary? A Jurisprudential Analysis

Substantial Issues in Defining “Substantially the Whole of the Undertaking”

Section 180(1)(a) of the Companies Act 2013 (“2013 Act”) requires a company to obtain prior approval by a special resolution to sell, lease or dispose of the whole or substantially the whole of the undertaking of the company or, when the company owns more than one undertaking, of the whole or substantially the whole of any of such  undertakings.Continue Reading Substantial Issues in Defining “Substantially the Whole of the Undertaking”

Declaration of Dividend: Interplay of law and business dynamics

Context

The aim of any business organisation is to earn profit and distribute it among the owners. In case of a company, such distribution of profits is connoted as Dividend. The Companies Act, 2013 (“the Act”), inter alia provides for declaration of dividend out of profits. Profit here is the net profit of a company, as determined for preparing financial statements, as per the provisions of Section 129 of the Act and after complying with all the applicable accounting standards notified under Section 133 of the Act.Continue Reading Declaration of Dividend: Interplay of law and business dynamics