How did a virus extend limitation?

 Introduction

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has forced unprecedented measures on the movement of people across the country, thereby also bringing the functioning of courts and tribunals to a grinding halt. Considering the present scenario, where courts have become physically inaccessible, the Supreme Court of India (“Supreme Court”) on March 23, 2020 took suo-moto cognizance of a petition for extension of limitation and passed an order (“Order”)[1] extending the limitation prescribed either under general law or special laws, whether condonable or not, for filing any petitions, applications, suits, appeals and all other proceedings in all courts and tribunals from March 15, 2020, until passing of further orders.

The Supreme Court reasoned that the Order was being passed to “obviate such difficulties and to ensure that lawyers/litigants do not have to come physically to file such proceedings in respective Courts/Tribunals across the country”.
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SC rules on limitation period for execution of foreign decrees under Section 44A

In its recent decision in Bank of Baroda v. Kotak Mahindra Bank[1], the Supreme Court has ruled on the limitation period applicable for execution of a foreign decree under Section 44A of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (“CPC”), after considering the previously divergent views of different High Courts on the issue.
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The Green Wave - Legal Challenges, Considerations for Investors in Cannabis Industry

Marijuana or cannabis can be used to treat a multitude of diseases; more importantly, it is known to be effective in reducing pain. In countries or states where medical marijuana is legal, doctors can prescribe it to alleviate nerve pain or glaucoma, or at times to help with nausea caused due to chemotherapy for cancer patients as well as treatment of HIV patients.

Investment in cannabis/ marijuana is not new. Venture capitalist Peter Thiel’s Founders Fund invested in the cannabis industry in 2015. Pharmaceutical companies and governments have long been investing in medical cannabis and conducting scientific research into its medicinal properties. Wellness and health brand, Goop, owned by Oscar winning actor Gwyneth Paltrow, is actively investing in the cannabis industry and selling CBD Oil (a cannabis derivative with potential therapeutic/ medicinal uses).
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Old Rules applicable to CRZ-II areas of Mumbai will soon be obsolete - Development control rules 1967

The Coastal Regulation Zone Notification dated January 18, 2019 (“CRZ 2019”), requires the respective Coastal Zone Management Plans (“CZMPs”) framed under the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification dated January 6, 2011 (“CRZ 2011”) to be revised or updated as per CRZ 2019, before being submitted to the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (“MOEFCC”). CRZ 2019 says that until and unless the CZMPs are so revised or updated, the provisions under CRZ 2011 will continue to be followed[1].  Accordingly, suggestions/ comments on the draft revised/ updated CZMPs of Mumbai city and Mumbai Suburban District under CRZ 2019 were invited for a period of 45 days commencing from January 16, 2020.[2] After district level hearings have been conducted[3] and based on the suggestions and objections received, the CZMPs will be revised and approval of the MOEFCC shall be obtained.[4] This has specific implications for construction projects in CRZ-II areas of Mumbai.


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UEFA shows Manchester City the Red Card - Why Indian Football should take note

Manchester City Football Club (“MCFC”) was banned from participating in club competitions of the Union des Associations Européenes de Football (“UEFA”) for the next two seasons, on February 14, 2020. A fine of EUR 30 million was also imposed on the grounds of having committed serious breaches of UEFA Club Licensing and Financial Fair Play Regulations (“UEFA Regulations”), and because of failure to cooperate with the investigation. The Adjudicatory Chamber of the UEFA Club Financial Control Body (“CFCB”) has found that MCFC overstated its sponsorship revenue in its accounts submitted to UEFA between 2012 and 2016.[1]
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 e-commerce platforms allowed to list products of direct selling entities without their consent

E-commerce websites such as Amazon, Flipkart, Snapdeal and 1MG (“Online Platforms”) can now breathe a sigh of relief. The Division Bench of the Delhi High Court (‘Division Bench’), in a recent judgment in Amazon Seller Services Pvt. Ltd. v. Amway India Enterprises Pvt. Ltd. & Others[1], allowed e-commerce websites/ platforms/ mobile applications to list products of direct selling entities like Amway, Modicare and Oriflame (“Direct Selling Entities”) without their consent.

In July 2019, a single-judge (“Single Judge”) bench of the Court had, in Amway India Enterprises Pvt. Ltd. v. 1MG Technologies Pvt. Ltd. & Another[2], restrained such online platforms from displaying, advertising, offering for sale, selling, facilitating repackaging of any products of Direct Selling Entities, without their written permission/ consent. The Single Judge had also directed Direct Selling Entities to give notice to the concerned Online Platforms to take down relevant listings if they found their products being displayed on such platforms without their consent. Accordingly, the Online Platforms would then have to take down the said listings within 36 hours.
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Arbitration Agreements in Unstamped Documents

Introduction

There has been constant confusion with respect to admissibility of unstamped documents. Section 35 of the Indian Stamp Act, 1899 (“Stamp Act”), provides that an unstamped or inadequately stamped document is inadmissible in evidence. Applying Section 35 of the Stamp Act, the Supreme Court in Garware Wall Ropes Ltd v. Coastal Marine Construction & Engineering Ltd [1](“Garware Judgement”) held that an arbitration agreement contained in an unstamped contract cannot be taken in evidence and invoked. It was further held that, in case the Court is faced with an unstamped document, it must proceed to impound the same, in accordance with the provisions of the Stamp Act; only once such an impounding is done — the deficit stamp duty and penalty paid, can the Court proceed on the basis of the arbitration agreement.
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Good Faith Negotiations and Mediation 

It has become increasingly common for parties to adopt multi-tiered dispute resolution clauses in agreements. A typical multi-tiered dispute-resolution clause requires parties to first attempt to resolve a dispute amicably – for instance, by engaging in friendly discussions, submitting to mediation or undertaking good faith negotiations – before the commencement of arbitration proceedings. There has been much ado about the enforceability of such clauses and whether they should be considered void due to vagueness: how does one engage in “friendly discussions”, and what exactly are “good faith negotiations”, when a presumably acrimonious dispute has already arisen between parties?

Despite this ambiguity, courts have increasingly found tiered dispute-resolution clauses to be enforceable. In fact, with a view to combat rising pendency in courts, these principles have been extended to the initiation of litigation as well. The Commercial Courts Act, 2015 (CCA) was amended last year to state that any suit that does not contemplate urgent interim relief cannot be instituted without the plaintiff having exhausted the remedy of pre-institution mediation and settlement.[1] A similar model is also followed in a number of other countries, including the UK, Italy, Greece and Turkey, where it has been successful in encouraging dispute resolution through mediation.[2]
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Finance Act 2019 - Prevention of Money Laundering Act Amendment

The Finance Act, 2019 (the 2019 Act) is the Central Government’s endeavour to tighten the gaps around the existing provisions of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA). Amidst the growing number of financial crimes and high-profile cases, the 2019 Act attempts to make the existing provisions stricter and better armoured to detect suspicious transactions. Additionally, the Act, along with the other amendments, has a greater aim of targeting money laundering and terrorist financing. The 2019 Act attempts to remove the ambiguity in the existing provisions by amending eight clauses of the PMLA.
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Extradition Law - Fundamentals and Processes

Part I of the article elaborates on legal basis and purpose extradition, the procedure and the statutory provisions of Indian Extradition Act, 1962 as well as the key aspects of the extradition treaty between India and the UK. Here we will discuss the extradition treaties between India and the US, India and UAE. This post further elaborates on the practice of non-extradition of own nationals and various issues that may be faced by States whilst processing a request for extradition.

Extradition Treaty Between India & the United States (US)

The offence is extraditable if punishable under the laws in both contracting parties by imprisonments for more than one year or by a more severe penalty. This applies:
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