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FIG Paper (No 35- Payments Series 3)– The new Draft Directions for Regulations of Payment Aggregator

Introduction:

In our previous two FIG Papers of PA/PG Framework (here) and (here), we shared our key learnings in connection with operations of payment aggregator and payment gateway guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India (“RBI”) on March 17, 2020 (as amended from time to time) (“PA/PG Guidelines”).

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Fashion has always been about expressing oneself, making retail therapy an important concept in modern society.

Enter, digital technology, or in this case, the combination of fashion and technology. This made even the most uninterested shopper indulge in some impulse buying or atleast ‘window’ shopping, often intrigued by the features on various shopping apps.

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Need for Syncing Sectoral Regulations with Data Protection Law

Cutting across sectors and borders, the Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 (DPDPA or Act), a lean, principles-based, horizontal legislation was enacted in August 2023 (yet to come into effect). Given the substantive procedural aspects under the Act being left for delegated legislation, the first set of rules is expected to be released for public consultation within 100 (hundred days) of the end of the ongoing General Elections,[1] if the incumbent government is re-elected.

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The Reserve Bank Of India Mandates Compounding For Issuance Of Partly Paid-Up Units By AIFs Prior To March 14, 2024

The Reserve Bank of India (“RBI”) vide its circular dated May 21, 2024 (“Circular”),[1] has required that issuance of partly paid-up units by Alternative Investment Funds (“AIFs”) to foreign investors prior to March 14, 2024, should be regularised through compounding under Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (“FEMA”). Compounding by RBI is prescribed for the contravention of foreign exchange regulations as per Foreign Exchange (Compounding Proceedings) Rules, 2000, and involve payment of a fees. In many instances, compounding requires payment of a monetary penalty to RBI.

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Handle with CARE: Relying on “Purposes of Employment” for Processing Employee Data

India has been preparing for the Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 (“DPA”), for almost a year now. During this time, companies have realised that relying on consent as a long-term basis for processing may be difficult, and instead, using ‘legitimate uses’[1], as the bases for processing may be a better alternative.

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Optimal locations for Global Capability Centres (GCCs) in India: Where to set it up?

In part V of our series on key legal considerations for establishing global capability centres (“GCCs”) in India,[1] we discuss the key factors to keep in mind when determining the location where the GCC is to be set up here.

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IRDAI Regulatory Reform Series: Registration and Capital Structure of Indian Insurance Companies

Background

The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (“IRDAI”) has a statutory duty to regulate, promote and ensure orderly growth of the insurance business and reinsurance business in India. Based on the IRDAI’s initiative to promulgate consolidated and principle-based regulations to govern the insurance industry, the Life Insurance Council and General Insurance Council (representative bodies of life and general insurers, respectively) constituted the Regulation Review Committee (“RRC”) to review the entire insurance regulatory framework and recommend principle-based regulations.

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New SEBI FPI Beneficial Owner Disclosure Norms

Introduction:

The Foreign Portfolio Investor (“FPI”) regime is a foreign investments’ entry route in India, whereby FPIs can invest in Indian securities, subject to compliance with India’s foreign exchange control laws and the regulatory framework issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (“SEBI”). As part of the Know Your Customer (“KYC”) process for FPI registration, identification and verification of Beneficial Owner(s) (“BO”) is required to be undertaken as per Rule 9 of the Prevention of Money Laundering (Maintenance of records) Rules, 2005 (“PMLR”),[1] which is a part of the Indian AML/ CFT legal framework.

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India-Korea: Building Blocks for $50-Billion Bilateral Trade by 2030 & Other Investments

While the Korean Wave or ‘Hallyu’, referring to the global popularity (including India) of K everything may seem like a recent phenomenon, the year 2024 marks the 51st anniversary of diplomatic relations between the two countries. According to the India Brand Equity Foundation, bilateral trade between India and Korea grew by 21.46% to $27.8 billion in 2022-23. South Korea is one of India’s largest Foreign Direct Investment (“FDI”) contributors, having invested $5.78 billion in key sectors such as metallurgy, automobiles, and electronics from April 2000 to December 2023.[1] With continuing and strengthening economic ties, both countries continue to remain bullish with the aim to reach $50 billion in bilateral trade by 2030. 

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The “Ordinary Course of Business” exception in preferential transactions – Deciphering the interpretation methodology

Blog Post:

The concept of avoidance of preferential transactions under Section 43 of the Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (“Code”), is based on the principle that insolvency is a collective scheme process and that the assets of a corporate debtor (“CD”) are distributed equitably in a liquidation scenario. During the twilight period of insolvency, paying off one creditor selectively can be disadvantageous to the interests of other stakeholders/creditors as transferring certain assets/monies diminishes the CD’s value. To reverse/avoid such preferential transactions, Section 43(1) of the Code empowers the resolution professional (“RP”) or the liquidator to approach the jurisdictional National Company Law Tribunal (“NCLT”). As per Section 43(2), a CD shall be deemed to have been given “preference” if the CD’s transfer of property benefits any creditor on account of any pre-existing debt owed by the CD and such a transfer puts the creditor into a beneficial position than it would have had the assets been distributed in a liquidation scenario. One of the two exclusions Section 43(3) lays down two exceptions from the trappings of the deeming fiction of preferential transactions one of them being “transfers made in the ordinary course of business or financial affairs of the corporate debtor or the transferee” (the “OCOB Exception”)[1].

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